Other scriptsThese are various disparate notes on scripts which really aren't my field; so they are presented with more reservations than the Arabic FAQ. They are offered more as "as far as I understand without having practical experience with these langauges". It consists of:
What about Hebrew, Persian, or Russian?
HebrewThe Hebrew script works basically the same way as Arabic. Previously commercially available through Apple's "Hebrew Language Kit", it is now included with every Mac running OS 9. Bascially the same applies as for Arabic, see it for a discussion of availability.
The following refers to the previous versions that were available on-line or bundled with other software, if you were able to find them when they were available. In order to use them on your normal Mac, you unpack the disks (you may only need Install 1 and Fonts). What you must locate are these elements:
This setup is based on 7.0.1, thus pre-WorldScript, but will still work on all modern Macs. Two caveats:
In order to get it to run, you must at least have installed the Hebrew System font. Which one it is, may be hard to find; but if there is one in the System file, it will be it. When you get it up, the Hebrew choice will be grey, inactive, while in Finder (can't do any non-European). You must start an application for Hebrew to be available. As for programs, Hebrew may create less problems in standard programs than Arabic, as it is less demanding.
Hebrew 7.1 (WorldScript) was, like Arabic, included on Nisus' Language key disks purchased before 1.1.1996. This disk also includes another keyboard for "transliteration", which means that the keys are located similar to a US logic, not a Hebrew one (alef on the left middle row, whre US has "a", then s and d etc.) These disks had similar transliteration keyboard layouts for the Persian and Hungarian scripts/languages, but not for Arabic or Russian (but such are now available with the new Language Kits). [Click here for a complete list of the resources included in the Nisus package.]
PersianPersian is included in the Mac OS 9 install disks alongside Arabic, and with the Arabic Language Kits before them. However, Persian has traditionally presented a bit of a problem of definition for Apple. Their general philosophy of division of languages into scripts, is that a script is a set of languages that can use the same character set. In this idea, Persian should be a language within the Arabic script - the Arabic script contains Persian and Urdu characters. In that case all that is needed is a keyboard layout (to fit the Persian typewriter standard) and sorting order, like for French under Roman. However, when Apple first released Persian and Arabic, they messed it up. Instead of following their own logic of having Persian and Arabic as different languages of one script, they made them alternative and initially incompatible scripts.
Persian under OS 7: The Nisus solutionThis can be seen on the (now unavailable) Nisus Language key disk, where they created a fix to solve the dilemma. You get three alternative options when you install these: only Arabic, only Persian, or both together. One most choose one of these, and the resource IDs bring that out: If you install either Persian or Arabic alone, either script / keyboard / resource gets the same resource ID 17920 (scripts are identified by resource number, and each scipt has a defined range of ID numbers; Arabic has the range 17920-18431. Any font, keyboard etc. with ID in that range is identified as belonging to the Arabic script. The "primary" languge of the script normally gets the lowest number of the range). I.e., you can't normally have both, as the IDs would clash.
The conflict is solved by the "both Arabic and Persian" choice. In this case, Persian is installed with the same ID numbers as when it is alone, while the Arabic resources appear with different IDs: 17923-24. Thus, surprisingly (at least for an Arabist like myself); Persian gets priority, and Arabic has to move over. This is important to note, it means that there are two kinds of Arabic resources in existence, those with IDs 17920-21 and those with IDs 17923-24. Clearly, if one were by malchance to combine bits from either system by manual installation, nothing would work, as the resource elements would not find each other. Also, one cannot install Persian on top of an Arabic system, but one can use these fixed Arabic resources to install on top of a Persian one.
The fonts, however, are apparently not renumbered: Arabic and Persian fonts have different IDs anyway, with one exception: The system font, El Kahira (al-Qahira) for Arabic and Tehran for Persian both have ID 17920, even in the combined system. I have not tried to install them to see what kind of clash this might make! or whether font ID number conflicts are a problem any longer, as long as the IDs are within the scripts resource number range.
Persian and OS 9In the 1996 Language Kit setup, Persian became part of the Arabic package, and is like Arabic included in OS 9. However, the confusion continues. Under OS 9, you should not, as you might suppose, install the Arabic resources in order to look for a Persian option there. In fact, the "ReadMe" file for the Persian options specifically says "The Persian script cannot be installed at the same time as Arabic. If you already have installed Arabic, remove it before you attempt to install Persian". So you can have Arabic, Gujarati and Hebrew, but not Arabic and Persian on the same machine!
However, it turns out it is not quite as bad. You just have to decide in advance whether you want Arabic only, Persian only or Arabic and Persian together.
If you want Persian only, you should not use the Mac OS installer program, as in the other scripts, at all. Instead, you should just go to the "Language Kit CD Extras" folder in the "CD Extras" folder on the Install CD, and double-click on "Persian.img", which brings that up as a disk icon. Then, you drag these items from the Persian disk file to your own System folder: "Persian script"; "Persian Settings" as well as the Persian fonts (do not include the "Persian keyboard" file, that is already inside in the Persian script file).
If you want Arabic and Persian together, install Arabic in the fashion described above. Then add from the Persian.img disk icon the Persian fonts, and in this case only the "Persian keyboard" file, not the Persian Script or Persian Settings files. In this case, Arabic dominates and Persian is subservient; which means that e.g. sorting is done after the Arabic system (...n-h-w-y) and not Persian (n-w-h-y). The reason for this is evidently that Arabic and Persian potentially clash, so only the fonts and keyboards, of which you can add many, can safely be combined. There is in fact very little difference between the fonts for the two; Persian fonts have Persian shapes on the numerals (e.g. 5); and has a "riyal" symbol instead of Arabic $, but otherwise they are similar.
Turkish and Icelandic and othersTurkish is even more problematical, and falls in the same category as Icelandic and some other "marginal" languges. The problem resembles that of Persian vs. Arabic above. Turkish of course uses a character set close to English, with some additions. Of these, the dotless i exists in the standard English character set, but not its corrollary, the dotted I, nor g breve (yumucak g), s with cedille and some others. For this reason, in the International Standards Organization scheme, where Roman languages are divided into three, Latin 1- Latin 3, Turkish belongs to Latin 3 (with Catalan, Esperanto, Galician, Sami [Lappish], and some others). Unlike with Latin 1 (West European) and Latin 2 (East European) Apple has not made any script for these languages.
But they have made a Turkish system. This works as a language under the normal Roman script, with region code 24. However, as the normal Roman fonts do not contain the Turkish characters, they have changed the fonts by adding the required letters, and then let them masquerade as "normal" Geneva, Monaco, Times etc; with the same names and same IDs as the unmodified ones. This works OK within one single machine, the Roman system script expects Geneva and finds Geneva. But when you go outside your own machine, you get problems. E.g., if you try to print such a document with Turkified Times on a laser printer, the printer (which has not been modified) will just see the name Times, and use its own normal, unmodified Times. WIthout the Turkish characters.
Solution? To create versions of the Turkish fonts that look the same, but have a different name and ID from the standard English. Of course, these fonts would be new fonts, so your document would have to written in these fonts from the beginning. Such fonts exist.
The same problem occurs for Icelandic, while this belongs to the Latin 1 category, Apple did not include their characters in its standard System (the only Latin 1 language missing). Again, they have created a "fix" with speical fonts, which look like Geneva etc. but include these characters. But there, they have at least had the intelligence to give the modified fonts new Icelandic names [in conformity to Icelandic ideology, as it were] so there is not so much problems with using them toegether with standard fonts. (Apparently, a similar problems exists for Rumanian, which also falls between Apple's West and East European systems, and the Sami languages. There is a fixed Rumanian character set, an apparently a de-facto accepted Sami one, the latter is probably not supported by Apple)
RussianRussian, being a left-right, single-byte script like English, requires less system resources than Arabic or Hebrew. Strictly speaking, you don't need a System script at all; a set of Russian fonts would be sufficient. But there is such a script, as well as a localized Russian (Cyrillic) system.
This is available on the OS 9 disks, and there was also a "Cyrillic Language Kit" (see here for comparative detail, what is said about Arabic will mostly also go for Cyrillic).
[For OS 7]: If you by chance have one of the (no longer available on-line) complete Russian systems and want to install only the relevant resources, you have to dig out:
That is all that is needed for Russian. It does not require such extensions and control panels, as Arabic. Restart. If you have got everything right; you should have a new menu to the right of the balloon icon, with a small US flag. That is the keyboards menu, you will find Russian (written in Cyrillic) under it. NB: Non-European scripts cannot be used in Finder, only in applications / programs, so Russian will be grey until you start some program.
Russian 7.1 (WorldScript) was, like Arabic, included on Nisus' Language key disk (no longer sold after 1.1.96). However, it is interesting to note that this installation only included the Russian keyboard layout, while there are references on the disk to Bulgarian, Ukrainan and a transliteration keyboard there, none of these are included but it may mean that they exist somewhere.
For further info on Russianizing a Mac, check this Web address.
East EuropeanCentral and Eastern European languages that use Roman script (like English) but with a few different characters are provided for by Apple. Although they are simple, left-right, single-byte scripts like English, they have got a special script under WorldScript, and separate fonts. On the Nisus collection of scripts, you will find keyboard layouts and fonts for Polish, Hungarian, Slovak and Solvenian, with three variants of Polish and two of Hungarian. Click here for a fuller list of these resources. For OS 9, these scripts are included on the system install disk. I do not know of any solution that would work for OS 8 users.
GreekThe system of scripts and languages within scripts are all very neat. However, in some cases the are some practical inconsistencies. One is with Greek. Greek has been defined as a separate script, because it of course uses different characters than the west European one. But, apart from this, the Greek "script" operates in the same as English, left to right and with the same number of characters. If you install a Greek font into a normal English system, there is no problem with writing Greek characters (unlike e.g. Arabic). So, before Apple had designed the WorldScript division of the world, there were many people who created Greek fonts for themselves to be used on US or European Macs. These fonts (many of us have SuperGreek) have nothing to do with WorldScript, you can use them on any standard English Mac in any program, like any other font.
Thus for Greek all you need are some Greek fonts, which you either buy from a font company like Linguist's, or probably find on-line. If the fonts use special keyboard layouts, you will normally get them with the font; if not, they are designed for the standard US keyboard layout. If they (the professional fonts) are based on a Greek WorldScript script, they should provide it, but I suspect most will not, since WS isn't really necessary for Greek. In any case, you can use the font in any word processing or other program; like any English font, regardless of WorldScript compatibility.
Possibly for this reason, Greek seems not to be among the many scripts that are included in the OS 9 installation disks (neither are Turkish or Icelandic, other "logical problems" in Apple's WorldScript system).
South and East Asian scriptsOther scripts: This is really outside my area. I know that there exist Thai and Indian (Devanagari, Gujarati, Punjabi) scripts, the Indian ones are included in OS 9 (the Thai is not, but it was, I believe, a Language Kit package), but that is about as much as I know about them.
Scripts with large character sets are grouped together as "WorldScript II". There are "language kits" with the necessary resources for Chinese (CLK) and Japanese (JLK), and Korean. Apple has made a list of thirty-one different scripts (writing systems), but many are still only theoretical.
The east Asian scripts (CJK as they are called) share some of the same problems as Arabic, that many applications have problems with them / assume things which are not true; but it may not be the same problems. I don't think Microsoft Word works with anything, but WordPerfect 3, if you can find it, will work OK with Japanese and Chinese, so does e.g. FrameMaker, although neither works with Arabic.
The major difference is however market size and strength, which makes it more tempting to make specialized versions of standard programs for Japan than for the Arabic market. Thus, you will find e.g. special Japanese versions of MacWrite, something we will probably never get for Arabic. Also, the dongle protection is less common in Japan. Notice that there is even a distinction within the CJK group, as the Chinese market is of course even more rife with software piracy than the Arabic one, if that is possible.
For the same reason, market size and sophistication of networks and equipment, you will find that many common Internet programs have Japanese versions, or will work with Japanese but not necessarily with any other scripts (except maybe Russian, which is less problematic than e.g. Arabic). Thus, Eudora, Newswatcher, TurboGopher and Netscape will all work with Japanese either in the standard or a modified version.
All the East Asian scripts; Korean, Japanese, Chinese Simplified and Traditional, are included in OS 9. If you want to know more about Japanese stuff from people who know about it, you can click here.
Creating a new script (for Esperanto)[For OS 7] [Q: I want to create a Esperanto script with keyboard and sorting order, as Esperanto uses characters from the ISO 8859-3 (Latin 3) character set, which I can't find on my Mac]
Setting up your own script isn't really something you can do on your own. Apple has defined a finite set of scripts, so anything new would conflict with exisiting scripts.
Since Apple doesn't have a script for Latin 3 (it does for Latin 2, which is EastEurRoman); they appear to think that these languages should fit under Roman -- which they don't; e.g. Turkish (another Latin 3 language) is defined by Apple as Roman, although its character set is not covered by the Apple set; the Turkish system uses a hack which creates various problems [see above].
In your case, you would probably have to create your own solution under the standard Roman script:
(1) Create or get hold a font that covers the characters you need (FontoGrapher or similar will do it).
Under (1); I have done so with Times for another purpose, and the word I got from Adobe here was, that I could only distribute the postscript version of my font to people who already owned a software version of Times. I.e., people who owned AdobeTypeManager. Once you do, apparently they didn't mind that you use a hacked version of the same. I have, using common-sense analogy, assumed that the same thing goes for TrueType; i.e. that if you own TrueType Times, you can also freely use a hacked version of the same; and since everyone with a Mac either owns TrueType Times or can get it from ftp.apple.com; I take TrueType derivations to be generally distributable. However, I am sure that Adobe and Apple still have the copyright to the fonts you make.
I use only English and French under OS 7, but I would still like to have a keyboard menu. Can I?You can if you know how to use the ResEdit resource editor. Open a copy of your System, then open the itlc resource, ID 0 and set "Always show icon" to 1. On restart, you will see the keyboards menu in the menu bar. Under more recent systems (e.g. OS 9), you don't need this, if you select more than one keyboard in the Keyboards control panel, the "flag menu" will appear.